This article explores and explains the drivers of the EU-China-Africa trilateral cooperation initiative. A panel data analysis aims to capture the effect of time on trade flows in view of the dynamic process of economic integration in the EU and the global financial crisis.
Teadusartiklid Fookuse peateema sisu Sulgudes märgitud andmebaas tähendab, et artikli täistekst on elektrooniliselt kättesaadav.
See võimaldab rahvusraamatukogu registreerunud ja otsinguportaali sisseloginud kasutajal sealt kohe sobiv andmebaas valida ja soovitud artikli täistekstini jõuda. Mõned ajakirjad rakendavad elektroonilistele täistekstidele aastast ligipääsupiirangut. Espa, Ilaria. Climate, energy and trade in EU—China relations: synergy or conflict?
This article aims at assessing the state of Sino—European energy relations in light of the common challenges they face in the areas of energy security and sustainability, while providing some insight on whether international trade rules are well-equipped to encourage and facilitate cooperation, on the one hand, and defuse potential conflicts, on the other, between China and the EU.
Section 1 introduces the topic. Section 2 gives an account of the climate and energy profiles of both China and the EU with a view to highlighting their shared interests in the field and the potential for synergies in the areas of energy security and energy sustainability. Section 3 illustrates how energy cooperation between China and the EU has evolved over the years and identifies its main strengths and weaknesses. Section 4 discusses the role that international trade rules can play in Kaubandus Panda Systems YouTubeis China—EU energy cooperation and provides a case study on the how World Trade Organization WTO rules on export restrictions could enhance energy security.
This is followed by some conclusions on the potential of the WTO system to advance Sino—EU energy relations and, more generally, global energy governance.
Springer Goron, Coraline. The dispute between the EU and China regarding the trade in solar panels has been commonly explained in terms of power politics, whereby a mercantile China exploited European internal divisions to its advantage. But the trade defence case was also criticized for running against European climate policy goals. To which extent does this case illustrate a normative conflict between trade and the environment?
It finds that, in this case, the familiar competition between divergent European industrial interests was made worse by an important normative cleavage amongst European decision-makers, regarding the appropriate way to achieve global climate change policy goals. Simply applying the law did not settle the dispute.
Instead, it plastered a political compromise emerged from a shift in the political narrative of the dispute, from emphasizing competition to emphasizing interdependence, pushing the Commission into a political compromise with China.
Springer open access Hooijmaaijers, Bas. This article explores and explains the drivers of the EU-China-Africa trilateral cooperation initiative. In order to do so a qualitative assessment was made of how well the various hypotheses flowing from three candidate theories neorealism, institutionalism and the bureaucratic politics model BPM fit this policy initiative. It specifically tests them across three distinct stages of the policy cycle, including issue identification, decision-making and policy implementation.
Cutting the dependent variable into policy stages allows us to see if the independent variables truly are powerful.
This study demonstrates that institutionalism contributes to a better understanding of every distinct stage of the policy process regarding the EU-China-Africa trilateral cooperation initiative.
Aspects of neorealism illuminate some stages of the policy process as well, Kaubandus Panda Systems YouTubeis BPM is only applicable to a limited degree.
This paper applies a gravity model to assess the factors underlying trade between the European Union and China separately for the exports and imports from to The two models are estimated for the 28 European Union countries.
A panel data analysis aims to capture the effect of time on trade flows in view of Kaubandus Panda Systems YouTubeis dynamic process of economic integration in the EU and the global financial crisis.
The results suggest that the insularity and landlocked nature of several European Union member states are beneficial for bilateral trade flows. The entry of the European countries into the European Union, their alignment under a common monetary policy in the Eurozone environment, and the subsequent gradual adoption of a common currency have brought a higher degree of interconnectivity between the member states and have also made a positive contribution to European Union—China bilateral trade expansion.
This article investigates EU-China dialogue on regional policy, a puzzling exercise in policy transfer because such policy is by its nature inward-oriented and the intricacies of regional development imply uncertainty about its effects in different contexts.
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The article sheds light on the reasons of both sides for engaging in this unlikely policy learning effort and identifies its actors and mechanisms. It also critically assesses this process, stressing its one-way nature and the active role of the EU as a 'policy-sender', in contrast to most policy transfer literature citing demands by the policy-recipient as the predominant reason to engage Kaubandus Panda Systems YouTubeis such cooperation. However, it soon became clear that China is not only a partner, but also a serious economic competitor for the EU.
This case shows that the European Member States are unable to pull together and to create a unified policy towards China. The Chinese and their team of large national companies have been eager to exploit this European weakness. It seems that, certainly in this case, competition has triumphed over EFSO aktsiate valikud. Subject to future adjustments of China's BRI strategy, the initiative's potential contribution to the EU requirements for infrastructure development could be significant, even though its modalities in the EU are inevitably different from those in countries that are poorer or have more difficult financial market access.
Kuidas saidi kiirus mõjutab mobiilse poode konversioonimäärasid
Despite superficial similarities in public discourses, the EU has a profoundly distinct perspective from that of the US on the BRI, and more generally on the rise of China and its growing global influence.
The EU should improve its ability to welcome sensible BRI projects, including through the adoption of greater reform of screening frameworks for foreign direct investment. More generally, the EU should enhance its ability to define policies independent of the US on China and the challenges resulting from China's rise.
China should also make further efforts to foster a constructive relationship with the EU. Wiley Online Library Tsibulina, Anna.
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- Kuidas saidi kiirus mõjutab mobiilse poode konversioonimäärasid | Martech Zone
The Chinese economic influence is growing in the world. There are more and more countries which are getting involved in the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative BRI and the European countries are not an exception.
The EU has exclusive competence in trade policy but not in investment field. The EU gives a rather guarded welcome to the BRI leaving much room for interpretation of its long-term policy regarding fulfillment of EU-China economic cooperation. Yu, Jie. This article explores the linkages between domestic affairs and foreign policies in China in fulfilling its grand ambition of Belt and Road Initiative BRI.
It also disentangles the intricate relations amongst the Party, the key decision-making institutions and the policy execution entities in determining the final outcome of the BRI.
Springer open access Yu, Kaho.
As a development framework with strong geo-political and geo-economical dimensions, the BRI aims to promote interconnectivity and cooperation in infrastructure, policy, trade, finance and culture among Eurasian countries. The implementation of the BRI is expected to involve numerous investments as well as infrastructure construction and industrial integration in the energy sector. The EU experience in creating an energy network has indicated a clear synergy between infrastructure networks and the market.
In the s, TEN-E was developed to create an integrated energy market, reinforce economic and social cohesion, and connect peripheral regions.
Springer Zeng, Jinghan.
Kuidas saidi kiirus mõjutab mobiilse poode konversioonimäärasid Kolmapäev, august 5, Douglas Karr Integreerisime premeerimisprogrammi ja töötasime e-kaubanduse kliendi jaoks välja mitu isikupärastatud ja keerukat turunduse automatiseerimise voogu, mis suurendasid dramaatiliselt nende tulusid. Kui me jälgisime jätkuvalt kasutajate liikumist e-kirjadest konversioonide kaudu, tuvastasime mitu probleemi nende hostimise ja platvormiga, mis mõjutasid oluliselt saidi kiirus - pettumust oma potentsiaalsetele klientidele ja hüljatute arvu tõstmist - eriti liikuv seadmeid. Miks on lehekiirus oluline Tore on töötada e-kaubanduse turunduse omandamise, säilitamise, müügi ja keskmise tellimusväärtuse automatiseerimise kallal Samuti tuleb teie e-kaubanduse saiti testida mitmel erineval viisil, et tagada kiiruse püsivus hea: Kas teie e-kaubanduse sait on kõigis brauserites pidevalt kiire? Kas teie e-kaubanduse sait on kõigis mobiilseadmetes pidevalt kiire?
Does Europe Matter? The rise of China as a global power has significantly reshaped its global ambition. Does Europe matter in China's major initiatives under the leadership of Xi Jinping?
How does Europe and the EU fit into China's strategic narratives? This article aims to address these questions by analyzing Chinese scholarly writings and conducting interviews in China. It also explores the evolution process of China's strategic narratives with a focus on the gradual appearances of Europe.
Appreciation of the internal dynamics of China is essential for Europe to develop a more accurate understanding of EU—China relations. Wiley Online Library.